Good readers are able to effectively coordinate their interaction with text by selecting and integrating reading strategies to use before, during and after reading. Torgeson (2006) emphasizes that struggling readers will need explicit strategy instruction that teaches them to use a repertoire of active comprehension strategies, including prediction, analyzing stories with respect to story grammar elements, question asking, image construction, and summarizing.
Good readers are able to effectively coordinate their interaction with text by selecting and integrating reading strategies to use before, during and after reading. Good readers use these strategies and construct meaning from the text with which they are interacting. They create a complete image of their text. It is a complex process. Struggling readers often find it difficult to use these strategies effectively because they cannot see the big picture. They may not have all the strategies in their repertoire or they are not able to coordinate the strategies they do have in place. As noted by Pressley (2001):
The case is very strong that teaching elementary, middle school, and high school stu- dents to use a repertoire of comprehension strategies increases their comprehension of text. Teachers should model and explain comprehension strategies, have their students practice using such strategies with teacher support, and let students know they are expected to continue using the strategies when reading on their own. Such teaching should occur across every school day, for as long as required to get all readers using the strategies independently — which means including it in reading instruction for years. (Active Comprehension Strategies section, para. 4)
Torgeson (2006) emphasizes that struggling readers will need explicit strategy instruction that teaches them to use a repertoire of active comprehension strategies, including prediction, analyzing stories with respect to story grammar elements, question asking, image construction, and summarizing.
To assist students with the use of comprehension strategies, download the activity masters listed below from the Florida Center for Reading Research.
Activities for Reading Grade Levels 2-3:
Summarizing: Sum Summary! (Students summarize text using a graphic organizer.) http://www.fcrr.org/scasearch/PDFs/2-3C_031.pdf
Questioning: Question Quest (Students read text and stop to answer questions and do tasks.)://www.fcrr.org/scasearch/PDFs/2-3C_028.pdf
Activities for Reading Grade Levels 4-5:
Predicting: Plenty of Predictions (Students make, write, and check predictions about text.)http://www.fcrr.org/scasearch/PDFs/4-5C_035.pdf
Questioning: Answer Know-How (Students determine types of questions and sort.)http://www.fcrr.org/scasearch/PDFs/4-5C_036.pdf
Request the TACtic, Comprehension Does Not Just Happen: Using Non-linguistic Represent- ations for Helping Students Become Independent Readers from http://ttac.odu.edu.
Complete the TTAConline Webshop, The Challenge of Reading Comprehension.
Pressley, M. (2001, September). Comprehension instruction: What makes sense now, what might make sense soon.
Reading Online, 5(2). Retrieved from http://www.readingonline.org/articles/art_index.asp?HREF=/articles/ hand- book/pressley/index.html.
Torgesen, J. K. (2006) Intensive reading interventions for struggling readers in early elementary school: A principal’s guide. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction.