The VDOE Reading Network provides K-12 teachers with effective strategies to increase the reading achievement of students with disabilities.  Following are useful resources.


Virginia Department of Education English/Reading/Writing Resources


Targeted Literacy Interventions Webinars

As part of the  PASS model for model for raising student achievement, the VDOE has created Webinars highlighting Targeted Literacy Interventions.

Access them on the VDOE Differentiated TA Page.

Session 1: Reading Instruction and Targeted Interventions – 10.31.13

Session 2: Assessing Reading at Midyear: Working Smarter with PALS – 1.9.14

Session 3: Literacy K-3: Linking Assessment to Instruction (Reading Specialists) – 2.6.14

Session 4: Planning for Success in a Reading Classroom – 3.23.14


T-TAC Online Reading Resources Training Opportunities, and Events

Investigate T-TAC Online.  To enter the site,  select your region on the Virginia map.  Select a tab at the top of the page to view VA Assessments, SOL Enhanced, Resources, Events or Online Training, and more.

Click here for T-TAC Online reading resources:


Reading Sites of Interest

The IRIS Center at Vanderbilt University is a national center dedicated to improving education outcomes for all children, especially those with disabilities birth through age twenty-one.  Find a list of reading related resources in this document:   The IRIS Center’s Resources for Teaching Reading


The Florida Center for Reading Research

  • Providing information about research-based practices related to literacy instruction and assessment for children in preschool through 12th grade.

Vaughn Gross Center for Reading

  • Online professional development dedicated to improving instruction for all students, especially struggling readers, English language learners, and special education students.

PALS Virginia Homepage
PALS  Virginia Activities, and resources.

  • Providing educators and students access to the highest quality practices and resources in reading and language arts instruction.

The Lexile Framework for Reading

  • Lexile measures are reported with the scores of students taking SOL reading tests in grades 3-8.  Instructional resources can be found at the website.  One helpful resource is the Find the Book feature.  You can access Find the Book at  Enter either a student Lexile score (from a recent SOL test), or the student’s current grade level.  Next, choose subject(s) of interest, and a tailor-made, leveled book list will be created for the student.


The Importance of Using Manipulatives  

Using Manipulatives During Math Instruction    The use of manipulatives during math instruction is instrumental in building conceptual understanding.  Children who use manipulatives and pictorial materials to represent a mathematical concept are more likely to understand the concept.Children’s attitudes towards mathematics are also improved when teachers effectively use manipulatives to teach difficult concepts (Sowell, 1989; Thompson & Lambdin, 1994).


When using manipulatives during mathematics instruction, teachers play an integral role in connecting concrete and visual representations to abstract concepts. The picture above demonstrates how Cuisenaire Rods can be used in primary grades to explore the associative property of addition using the Concrete-Representational-Abstract approach.

For more lessons using manipulatives to teach number concepts in primary grades, check out   Hands on Standards, Grades 1-2 from our T-TAC ODU Library:

For more information on how to incorporate manipulatives into instruction, watch this free webinar presented by ETA Hand 2 Mind: Putting Manipulatives to Work, Part 1: Developing Number Sense K-5 with Cuisenaire Rods, Rekenreks and Place Value Chips:

For an overview of the Big Ideas in Number Sense K-3 and resources for Number Sense activities, view  A Guide to Effective Instruction in Mathematics Kindergarten to Grade 3: Number Sense and Numeration:


Sowell, E. (1989). Effects of Manipulative Materials in Mathematics Instruction. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 20, 498-505.

Thompson, P.W., Lambdin, D. (1994). Concrete materials and teaching for mathematical understanding. Arithmetic Teacher, (May), 556-558.


New Mathematics Resources!!

The following resources are now available for checkout in the T-TAC ODU Lending Library!

Developing Number Concepts

The Developing Number Concepts series by Kathy Richardson is designed to help young children develop important foundational mathematics concepts.

Each of the three books in the series includes organized sets of activities and lessons focused on particular mathematical ideas. Every concept is developed both through teacher-directed and independent activities. The focus areas for the three books are:

  • Book 1: Counting, Comparing and Pattern
  • Book 2:  Addition and Subtraction
  • Book 3:  Place Value, Multiplication and Division

In addition, a Planning Guide for Developing Number Concepts is available with the series. The guide was written for kindergarten through grade three teachers and teachers of multi-grade classes. It includes comprehensive year-long teaching plans along with classroom management ideas.


How Children Learn Number Concepts

A “must-have” book for every educator wanting to know how young children develop an understanding of number concepts. Through her years of research and extensive work with young children, Richardson has identified the stages, or Critical Learning Phases, children go through as they develop mathematical understanding. This resource will help all math educators understand how children make sense of numbers and what mathematics they are ready to learn at each phase of development. Grades K-5.


Virginia Department of Education Mathematics Resources



T-TAC Online Math Resources Training Opportunities, and Events

Investigate T-TAC Online.  To enter the site,  select your region on the Virginia map.  Select a tab at the top of the page to view VA Assessments, SOL Enhanced, Resources, Events or Online Training, and more.

Click here for T-TAC Online math resources:


Additional Mathematics Sites of Interest

Fluency Without Fear by Jo Boaler  Activities to develop Number Sense and Number Facts

Download at:

Multiple Representations of Multiplication A video from The National Center for Excellence in the Teaching of Mathematics  (NCETM)

Watch this NCETM  video of a teacher using multiple representations for multiplication. (This teacher works in a school where 3 x 4 is interpreted as 3 + 3 + 3 + 3). It is a good example of how to support the conceptual understanding of multiplication facts and its importance as students develop fact fluency.


Quantiles Framework Resources


Newly Added Resources

At the National Center on Intensive Instruction website, you can find examples of instructional plans that intensify fraction instruction.  You can download the plans and print-based representations (manipulatives) at these links.

Computation of Fractions Fractions as NumbersESS Lesson Plans (PDF), Math Resources Slides


The SOL Enhanced Scope and Sequence (ESS) was created by a team of general and special educators and VDOE personnel.  ESS provides teachers across the state with differentiated lessons that are aligned with the essential knowledge and skills found in the Curriculum Framework at VDOE.  The ESS is organized by content areas (i.e. Mathematics, English, History and Social Science, Science), and can be accessed at the Virginia Department of Education Standards of Learning.


 Virginia Department of Education Instructional Resources

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E-News You Can Use for Curriculum and Instruction

The Workshop Model is for Math, too!

According to Marilyn Burns (Burns, 2009), the elementary classroom “workshop” is a place where students are engaged in learning, as they act as apprentices to teachers who model and teach them to read, write and do math.  They are engaged, intensively in developing skills and developing understanding by doing the work of reading writing and math.  If you are using the workshop method in reading, you may want to consider using the idea for math, too.

Table of Reading and Math Workshop Components

click to download pdf

Read this article:  Building a Bridge from Reading to Math

TTAC/ODU Library Resources for Math Workshop and Reading Workshop:

Guided Math in Action    Next Step in Guided Reading K-1  Guided Reading in Action