According to a recent review of the research literature, self-monitoring is an example of a positive behavioral intervention that has been used successfully with a number of behaviors including off-task, classroom readi- ness, disruption, following directions, and academic engagement (Sheffield & Waller, 2010). Self-monitoring is defined as a two-stage process of observing and recording behavior in which the student distinguishes whether a target behavior occurs or does not occur and then self-records some part of the target behavior.
According to a recent review of the research literature, self-monitoring is an example of a positive behavioral intervention that has been used successfully with a number of behaviors including off-task, classroom readi- ness, disruption, following directions, and academic engagement (Sheffield & Waller, 2010). Self-monitoring is defined as a two-stage process of observing and recording behavior in which the student distinguishes whether a target behavior occurs or does not occur and then self-records some part of the target behavior (Menzies, Lane, & Lee, 2009; Ryan, Pierce, & Mooney, 2008). Before implementing self-monitoring, Menzies, Lane, and Lee (2009) provide questions to consider.
Self-monitoring interventions have been shown to be effective with students identified with learning disabilities, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and emotional disabilities in both general education and special educa- tion settings (Sheffield & Waller, 2010). It is an intervention that can provide additional support for students to learn academic and social/behavioral expectations.
Guidelines for Using Self-Monitoring:
Use self-monitoring if you can answer “yes” to each of these questions:
• Does the student have the skills to perform the behavior?
• Is the student able to control the problem behavior?
• Is the behavior occurring frequently?
• Is the behavior observable and measurable?
(Adapted from Menzies, Lane, & Lee, 2009)
Application and Resources
A variety of additional resources is included for use by individual teachers, coaches, teacher teams, or staff professional development.
• SOS: Helping Students Become Independent Learners: This module developed by The IRIS Center at Peabody Vanderbilt provides research, a case study, and step-by-step implementation guidelines with videos and activities to support teacher use of self-regulation strategies, including self-monitoring. Use this link to access the entire module: (broken link) http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/sr/cresource.htm. To ac- cess the section on self-monitoring use this link: (broken link) http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/sr/sr_04.html.
• Teaching Self-Management Skills: This resource provides guidance for teaching self-management skills, including self-monitoring. It includes tools for incorporating student involvement in the process of implementing self-management skills. (broken link) http://www.specialconnections.ku.edu/cgi-bin/cgiwrap/specconn/main.php?cat=behavi or§ion=main&subsection=pbsint/self.
• Making Order out of Chaos: An Example of Positive Behavior Support Implementation: This case study includes a comprehensive individualized positive behavior support plan using a team process, functional as- sessment, and data-based decision making. Implementation tools, including data collection instruments, are included as additional resources. The behavior plan includes a multitude of interventions including instruction for self-monitoring, self-recruiting teacher help, teaching replacement behaviors, and using a picture schedule system. (broken link) http://www.pbis.org/google_search.aspx?keyword=self-monitoring. Click on the resource titled “Han- nah” to access this case study.
Menzies, H.M., Lane, K.L., & Lee, J.M. (2009). Self-monitoring strategies for use in the classroom: A promising practice to support productive behavior for students with emotional or behavioral disorders. Beyond Behavior, 18(2), 27-35.
Ryan, J.B., Pierce, C.D., & Mooney, P.( 2008). Evidence-based teaching strategies for students with EBD. Beyond Be- havior, 17(3), 22-29.
Sheffield, K., &Waller, R.J. (2010). A review of single-case studies utilizing self-monitoring interventions to reduce problem classroom behaviors. Beyond Behavior, 19(2), 7-13.