Effective classroom behavior management involves a host of strategies and supports; including what is done instructionally. Some research suggests that as much as 90% of classroom behavior problems can be eliminated through fully planned and effectively delivered instruction.
Effective classroom behavior management involves a host of strategies and supports; including what is done instructionally. Some research suggests that as much as 90% of classroom behavior problems can be eliminated through fully planned and effectively delivered instruction (Engelmann & Colvin, 1983). One such instructional technique is the use of response cards for producing high levels of student responding. Response cards provide a way of actively engaging all students simultaneously during instruction. Using response cards can also provide a convenient way to conduct formative assessment to guide instructional decisions.
Three research articles reported on the positive impacts on disruptive and off-task student behavior when response cards were used during mathematic instruction (Armendariz & Umbreit, 1999; Christle & Schuster, 2003; Lambert, Cartledge, Heward, & Lo, 2006). Lambert, Cartledge, Heward, and Lo (2006), also found a higher rate of correct responses when response cards were used during instruction. Response cards might look like this in the classroom:
• dry-erase boards
• cards with choices to respond to mathematical questions (greater than >, less than <, equal to =)
• Laminated hundreds boards with vis-à-vis markers to circle patterns of 5, 10, 20
• Hand signals (thumbs up, thumbs down)
• Use of technology (Active votes)
More ideas for response cards and other engaging instructional techniques for mathematics can be found below.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Illuminations: Resources for Teach- ing Math (Activities, Lessons, Weblinks) http://illuminations.nctm.org/
Fraction Clothesline (includes downloadable materials, extension activities, and assessment options) http://illuminations.nctm.org/LessonDetail.aspx?id=L784
K-8AccessCenter: Web-Based Resources for Mathematics: Tools and Activities for Teaching and learn- ing, Handout 3 http://www.k8accesscenter.org/documents/Handouts_01-03-07.pdf
Armendariz, F., & Umbreit, J. (1999). Using active responding to reduce disruptive behavior in a general education class- room. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1(3), 152-158.
Christle, C.A., & Schuster, J.W. (2003). The effects of using response cards on student participation, academic achievement, and on-task behavior during whole-class, math instruction. Journal of Behavioral Education, 12, 147-165.
Engelmann, S., & Colvin, G. (1983). Generalized compliance training: A direct-instruction program for managing severe behavior problems. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
Lambert, M.C., Cartledge, G., Heward, W.L., & Lo, Y. (2006). Effects of response cards on disruptive behavior and aca- demic responding during math lessons by fourth-grade urban students. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(2),88-99.